A recent controversial hypothesis suggested that the bactericidal action of antibiotics is due to the generation of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS), a process requiring the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid [TCA] cycle). To test this hypothesis, we assessed the ability of oxacillin to induce ROS production and cell death in Staphylococcus epidermidis strain 1457 and an isogenic citric acid cycle mutant. Our results confirm a contributory role for TCA-dependent ROS in enhancing susceptibility of S. epidermidis toward β-lactam antibiotics and also revealed a propensity for clinical isolates to accumulate TCA cycle dysfunctions presumably as a way to tolerate these antibiotics. The increased protection from β-lactam antibiotics could result from pleiotropic effects of a dysfunctional TCA cycle, including increased resistance to oxidative stress, reduced susceptibility to autolysis, and a more positively charged cell surface.
IMPORTANCE: Staphylococcus epidermidis, a normal inhabitant of the human skin microflora, is the most common cause of indwelling medical device infections. In the present study, we analyzed 126 clinical S. epidermidis isolates and discovered that tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle dysfunctions are relatively common in the clinical environment. We determined that a dysfunctional TCA cycle enables S. epidermidis to resist oxidative stress and alter its cell surface properties, making it less susceptible to β-lactam antibiotics.
Anti-Bacterial Agents, Citric Acid Cycle, Humans, Microbial Sensitivity Tests, Microbial Viability, Oxacillin, Oxidative Stress, Reactive Oxygen Species, Staphylococcus epidermidis, beta-Lactams
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Chittezham Thomas, Vinai; Kinkead, Lauren C.; Janssen, Ashley; Schaeffer, Carolyn R.; Woods, Keith M.; Lindgren, Jill K.; Peaster, Jonathan M.; Chaudhari, Sujata S.; Sadykov, Marat; Jones, Joselyn; Mohamadi AbdelGhani, Sameh M.; Zimmerman, Matthew C.; Bayles, Kenneth W.; Somerville, Greg A.; and Fey, Paul D., "A dysfunctional tricarboxylic acid cycle enhances fitness of Staphylococcus epidermidis during β-lactam stress." (2013). Journal Articles: Pathology and Microbiology. 15.