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Background: Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder causing brittle bones, extremity deformities, short stature, and scoliosis, resulting in decreased physical function. Body Mass Index (BMI) is used as a proxy for body fat in the general population, however, it is particularly inaccurate measure to gauge body fat in OI patients due to skeletal deformities and short stature. There is a critical need to identify the anthropometric and body composition characteristics that contribute to important health outcomes and improve disease management in patients with OI. Current literature is lacking data on percent body fat (% BF) composition in patients with OI due to several of the current methods to estimate % BF cannot be safely performed. The purpose of this study is to compare two safe measures using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) via the BOD POD® (COSMED USA Inc. Concord, CA) and 3D Body Scanner Styku™ (Styku, LLC, Los Angeles, CA) precision to one another to evaluate body fat percentage in OI patients. Our hypothesis is %BF and BMI percentiles measured between these two devices will not be statistically dissimilar.

Methods: Patients were recruited from Children’s Omaha multidisciplinary OI clinic and underwent anthropometric measures using BOD POD® and Styku™. Air displacement plethysmography (ADP) via the BOD POD® and 3D Body Scanner with Styku™ associations between continuous variables were assessed using Spearman correlations. Difference scores between Styku and BodPod measurements were calculated, and were assessed to see if they significantly differed from zero (i.e. no difference) using a Signed Rank test All analyses were performed using SAS software version 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC).

Results: Higher body fat percentages as measured by the Styku™ and BOD POD® tended to be associated with higher BMI percentiles (rho = 0.56; 0.45), however this was not significant (p = 0.07; 0.09). The median difference between Styku and BodPod % BF measurements was 3.4 (-2.2, 8.7), however, this was not significantly different from zero (p = 0.21).

Conclusion: More patients are needed to increase the power of the study in order to determine if there truly is a difference between Styku™ and BOD POD® measurements in %BF and BMI percentiles. If there is not a difference between these measures it is foreseeable to use either Styku™ and BOD POD® to assess %BF in OI patients as an overall measure of health.

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Assessing Body Fat in Pediatric Osteogenesis Imperfecta: A Preliminary Comparison of Anthropometric Techniques