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Frontiers in Immunology

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Neuropilins (NRPs) are non-tyrosine kinase cell surface glycoproteins expressed in all vertebrates and widely conserved across species. The two isoforms, such as neuropilin-1 (NRP1) and neuropilin-2 (NRP2), mainly act as coreceptors for class III Semaphorins and for members of the vascular endothelial growth factor family of molecules and are widely known for their role in a wide array of physiological processes, such as cardiovascular, neuronal development and patterning, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, as well as various clinical disorders. Intriguingly, additional roles for NRPs occur with myeloid and lymphoid cells, in normal physiological as well as different pathological conditions, including cancer, immunological disorders, and bone diseases. However, little is known concerning the molecular pathways that govern these functions. In addition, NRP1 expression has been characterized in different immune cellular phenotypes including macrophages, dendritic cells, and T cell subsets, especially regulatory T cell populations. By contrast, the functions of NRP2 in immune cells are less well known. In this review, we briefly summarize the genomic organization, structure, and binding partners of the NRPs and extensively discuss the recent advances in their role and function in different immune cell subsets and their clinical implications.



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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.