Therapies for neovascular age-related macular degeneration: current approaches and pharmacologic agents in development.

Mostafa Hanout, University of Nebraska Medical Center
Daniel Ferraz, University of Sao Paulo Medical School
Mehreen Ansari, Johns Hopkins University
Natasha Maqsood, Johns Hopkins University
Saleema Kherani, Johns Hopkins University
Yasir J. Sepah, University of Nebraska Medical Center
Nithya Rajagopalan, University of Nebraska Medical Center
Mohamed Ibrahim, Johns Hopkins University
Diana V. Do, University of Nebraska Medical Center
Quan Dong Nguyen, University of Nebraska Medical Center


As one of the leading causes of blindness, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has remained at the epicenter of clinical research in ophthalmology. During the past decade, focus of researchers has ranged from understanding the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the angiogenic cascades to developing new therapies for retinal vascular diseases. Anti-VEGF agents such as ranibizumab and aflibercept are becoming increasingly well-established therapies and have replaced earlier approaches such as laser photocoagulation or photodynamic therapy. Many other new therapeutic agents, which are in the early phase clinical trials, have shown promising results. The purpose of this paper is to briefly review the available treatment modalities for neovascular AMD and then focus on promising new therapies that are currently in various stages of development.