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Patient Education and Counseling

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OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that diabetes-related distress would vary by type of diabetes and medication regimen [Type 1 diabetes (T1DM), Type 2 diabetes with insulin use (T2DM-i), Type 2 diabetes without insulin use (T2DM)]. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify groups with elevated diabetes-related distress.

METHODS: We administered the 17-item Diabetes-related Distress Scale (DDS-17) to 585 patients. We collected demographics, medications, and lab results from patient records.

RESULTS: Patients were categorized by type of diabetes and medication: T1DM (n = 149); T2DM-i (n = 333); and T2DM (n = 103). ANOVA revealed significant differences in sample characteristics. ANCOVA were conducted on all four DDS-17 domains [Emotional Burden (EB); Physician-related Distress (PD); Regimen-related Distress (RD); and Interpersonal Distress (ID)]; covariates included in the models were sex, age, duration of diabetes, BMI, and HbA1c. EB was significantly lower in T1DM than T2DM-i, p < 0.05. In addition, RD was significantly lower in T1DM than either T2DM-i, p < 0.05 and T2DM, p < 0.05.

CONCLUSIONS: EB and RD are higher for those with type 2 diabetes. Thus, interventions to reduce EB and RD need to be considered for patients with type 2 diabetes.

IMPLICATIONS: DDS-17 is useful in identifying diabetes-related distress in patients with diabetes. Efforts need to be made to reduce EB and RD.



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