Document Type


Journal Title

Social work in health care

Publication Date





As 7.8% of the U.S. population is affected by diabetes, health care providers are tasked with providing resources to assist patients toward self-management. Psychosocial issues have an effect on diabetes self-care. Diabetes-related distress is associated with self-management and lower A1C. This cross-sectional study seeks to understand how demographic factors, psychological orientations, support, and diabetes management behaviors predict diabetes-related distress. This study uses data from 267 adults with Type 2 diabetes. The Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS) is a 17-item scale measuring diabetes-related distress including emotional distress, physician-related distress, regimen distress, and interpersonal distress. Hierarchical regression was conducted in four stages. The final model explains 48% of the variance in DDS. Significant factors related to lower DDS were older age, lower body mass index, higher self-efficacy, higher levels of health care provider support, and a healthy diet. Findings of this study help health care providers know where to focus to reduce diabetes-related distress. Health care provider support is significant in reducing DDS. Diabetes education may want to include strategies that increase self-efficacy and assist people with diabetes to obtain a healthy weight through a more healthful diet.




NIH Public Access Manuscript

Published in final edited form as: Soc Work Health Care. 2014 ; 53(4): 364–381. doi:10.1080/00981389.2014.884038.