Document Type


Journal Title

PLoS One

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BACKGROUND: Understanding factors associated with prevalent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and prevalent TB disease in household contacts of patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) may be useful for TB program staff conducting contact investigations.

METHODS: Using data from a cross-sectional study that enrolled index participants with rifampin-resistant pulmonary TB and their household contacts (HHCs), we evaluated HHCs age ≥15 years for factors associated with two outcomes: Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and TB disease. Among HHCs who were not already diagnosed with current active TB disease by the TB program, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection was determined by interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA). TB disease was adjudicated centrally. We fitted logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations.

RESULTS: Seven hundred twelve HHCs age ≥15 years enrolled from 279 households in eight high-TB burden countries were a median age of 34 years, 63% female, 22% current smokers and 8% previous smokers, 8% HIV-positive, and 11% previously treated for TB. Of 686 with determinate IGRA results, 471 tested IGRA positive (prevalence 68.8% (95% Confidence Interval: 64.6%, 72.8%)). Multivariable modeling showed IGRA positivity was more common in HHCs aged 25-49 years; reporting prior TB treatment; reporting incarceration, substance use, and/or a period of daily alcohol use in the past 12 months; sharing a sleeping room or more evenings spent with the index participant; living with smokers; or living in a home of materials typical of low socioeconomic status. Forty-six (6.5% (95% Confidence Interval: 4.6%, 9.0%)) HHCs age ≥15 years had prevalent TB disease. Multivariable modeling showed higher prevalence of TB disease among HHCs aged ≥50 years; reporting current or previous smoking; reporting a period of daily alcohol use in the past 12 months; and reporting prior TB treatment.

CONCLUSION: We identified overlapping and distinct characteristics associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and TB disease that may be useful for those conducting household TB investigations.

MeSH Headings

Adolescent, Adult, Female, Humans, Male, Cross-Sectional Studies, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Rifampin, Risk Factors, Tuberculin Test, Tuberculosis, Tuberculosis, Pulmonary, Drug Resistance, Bacterial



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.