Lorenzo Galluzzi, INSERM U1078, Brest, France
Erika Vacchelli, INSERM U1078, Brest, France
José-Manuel Bravo-San Pedro, INSERM U1078, Brest, France
Aitziber Buqué, INSERM U1078, Brest, France
Laura Senovilla, INSERM U1078, Brest, France
Elisa Elena Baracco, INSERM U1078, Brest, France
Norma Bloy, INSERM U1078, Brest, France
Francesca Castoldi, INSERM U1078, Brest, France
Jean-Pierre Abastado, Institut de Recherches Internationales Servier
Patrizia Agostinis, University of Leuvan, Leuvan, Belgium
Ron N. Apte, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be'er Sheva, Israel
Fernando Aranda, INSERM U1078, Brest, France
Maha Ayyoub, INSERM U1102, Herblain, France
Philipp Beckhove, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany
Jean-Yves Blay, Centre Léon Bérard
Laura Bracci, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy
Anne Caignard, INSERM U1160, Paris, France
Chiara Castelli, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano, Italy
Federica Cavallo, University of Torino, Torino, Italy
Estaban Celis, Georgia Regents University Cancer Center, Augusta, GA
Vincenzo Cerundolo, University of Oxford, UK
Aled Clayton, Cardiff University, Wales, UK
Mario P. Colombo, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano, Italy
Lisa Coussens, Oregon Health & Science University
Madhav V. Dhodapkar, Yale University
Alexander M. Eggermont, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France
Douglas T. Fearon, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York
Wolf H. Fridman, INSERM U1078, Brest, France
Jitka Fučíková, Sotio a.c., Prague, Czech Republic
Dmitry I. Gabrilovich, Perelman School of Medicine University of Pennsylvania
Jérôme Galon, INSERM U1078, Brest, France
Abhishek Garg, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
François Ghiringhelli, INSERM UMR866, Dijon, France
Giuseppe Giaccone, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda
Eli Gilboa, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine
Sacha Gnjatic, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Axel Hoos, Cancer Immunotherapy Consortium, Collegeville, PA
Anne Hosmalin, Université Paris Descartes/Paris V, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France
Dirk Jäger, University Medical Center Heidelberg
Pawel Kalinski, University of Pittsburgh
Klas Kärre, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden
Oliver Kepp, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France
Rolf Kiessling, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden
John M. Kirkwood, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA
Eva Klein, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden
Alexander Knuth, Hamad Medical Corporation
Claire E. Lewis, University of Sheffield Medical School, UK
Roland Liblau, INSERM, UMR1043, Toulouse, France
Michael T. Lotze, University of Pittsburgh
Enrico Lugli, Humanitas Clinical and Research Institute, Rozzano, Italy
Jean-Pierre Mach, University of Lausanne
Fabrizio Mattei, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy
Domenico Mavilio, Humanitas Clinical and Research Institute, Rozzano, Italy
Ignacio Melero, Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
Cornelis J. Melief, ISA Therapeutics, Leiden, The Netherlands
Elizabeth A. Mittendorf, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
Lorenzo Moretta, Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genova, Italy
Adekunke Odunsi, Roswell Park Cancer Institute
Hideho Okada, University of California, San Francisco, CA
Anna Karolina Palucka, The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine
Marcus E. Peter, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine
Kenneth J. Pienta, John Hopkins Medical Institutions
Angel Porgador, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be'er Sheva, Israel
George C. Prendergast, Lankenau Institute for Medical Research
Gabriel A. Rabinovich, Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME), Buenos Aires, Argentina
Nicholas P. Restifo, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda
Naiyer Rizvi, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
Catherine Sautès-Fridman, INSERM U1078, Brest, France
Hans Schreiber, The Cancer Research Center, University of Chicago
Barbara Seliger, Martin Luther Universitat Halle-Wittenberg
Hiroshi Shiku, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Japan
Bruno Silva-Santos, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
Mark J. Smyth, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, Queensland, Australia
Daniel E. Speiser, University of Lausanne
Radek Spisek, Sotio a.c., Prague, Czech Republic
Pramod K. Srivastava, University of Connecticut School of Medicine
James E. Talmadge, University of Nebraska Medical CenterFollow
Eric Tartour, Université Paris Descartes/Paris V, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France
Sjoerd H. Van Der Burg, Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands
Benoît J. Van Den Eynde, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Brussels, Belgium
Richard Vile, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine
Hermann Wagner, Technical University of Munich
Jeffrey S. Weber, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa
Theresa L. Whiteside, Hillman Cancer Center, University of Pittsburg Cancer Institute
Jedd D. Wolchok, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
Laurence Zitvogel, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France
Weiping Zou, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Guido Kroemer, INSERM U1078, Brest, France

Document Type


Journal Title


Publication Date

Winter 12-30-2014




During the past decades, anticancer immunotherapy has evolved from a promising therapeutic option to a robust clinical reality. Many immunotherapeutic regimens are now approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for use in cancer patients, and many others are being investigated as standalone therapeutic interventions or combined with conventional treatments in clinical studies. Immunotherapies may be subdivided into "passive" and "active" based on their ability to engage the host immune system against cancer. Since the anticancer activity of most passive immunotherapeutics (including tumor-targeting monoclonal antibodies) also relies on the host immune system, this classification does not properly reflect the complexity of the drug-host-tumor interaction. Alternatively, anticancer immunotherapeutics can be classified according to their antigen specificity. While some immunotherapies specifically target one (or a few) defined tumor-associated antigen(s), others operate in a relatively non-specific manner and boost natural or therapy-elicited anticancer immune responses of unknown and often broad specificity. Here, we propose a critical, integrated classification of anticancer immunotherapies and discuss the clinical relevance of these approaches.

MeSH Headings

Animals, Humans, Immunotherapy, Neoplasms



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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.