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A female infant was born by cesarean section at 36 weeks of gestation after the mother presented with perceived decreased fetal movement, blood-tinged mucous vaginal discharge, and a non-reactive non-stress test. Upon delivery, the infant appeared extremely pale and in mild respiratory distress. A complete blood count upon admission showed profound neonatal anemia, and a Kleihaur-Betke test confirmed fetomaternal hemorrhage as the cause. Transfusions corrected the infant’s hematocrit levels, and she was discharged on day 8 following a normal brain MRI. Fetal to maternal hemorrhage is a known cause of neonatal anemia, however the presentation is nonspecific leading to underdiagnosis which can cause serious complications including infant death. Fetomaternal hemorrhage is a rare and severe phenomenon which requires increased awareness, improved diagnostic testing, and further research.
Hogan Smoot, Margaret and Zach, Terrance, "Profound Neonatal Anemia Due to a Fetal to Maternal Hemorrhage: A Case Study" (2021). Child Health Research Institute Pediatric Research Forum. 3.