PP2A holoenzyme complexes are responsible for the majority of Ser/Thr phosphatase activities in human cells. Each PP2A consists of a catalytic subunit (C), a scaffold subunit (A), and a regulatory subunit (B). While the A and C subunits each exists only in two highly conserved isoforms, a large number of B subunits share no homology, which determines PP2A substrate specificity and cellular localization. It is anticipated that different PP2A holoenzymes play distinct roles in cellular signaling networks, whereas PP2A has only generally been defined as a putative tumor suppressor, which is mostly based on the loss-of-function studies using pharmacological or biological inhibitors for the highly conserved A or C subunit of PP2A. Recent studies of specific pathways indicate that some PP2A complexes also possess tumor-promoting functions. We have previously reported an essential role of PR55α, a PP2A regulatory subunit, in the support of oncogenic phenotypes, including in vivo tumorigenicity/metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells. In this report, we have elucidated a novel role of PR55α-regulated PP2A in the activation of YAP oncoprotein, whose function is required for anchorage-independent growth during oncogenesis of solid tumors. Our data show two lines of YAP regulation by PR55α: (1) PR55α inhibits the MOB1-triggered autoactivation of LATS1/2 kinases, the core member of the Hippo pathway that inhibits YAP by inducing its proteasomal degradation and cytoplasmic retention and (2) PR55α directly interacts with and regulates YAP itself. Accordingly, PR55α is essential for YAP-promoted gene transcriptions, as well as for anchorage-independent growth, in which YAP plays a key role. In summary, current findings demonstrate a novel YAP activation mechanism based on the PR55α-regulated PP2A phosphatase.
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Hein, Ashley L.; Brandquist, Nichole D.; Ouellette, Caroline Y.; Seshacharyulu, Parthasarathy; Enke, Charles A.; Ouellette, Michel M.; Batra, Surinder K.; and Yan, Ying, "PR55α Regulatory Subunit of PP2A Inhibits the MOB1/LATS Cascade and Activates YAP in Pancreatic Cancer Cells" (2019). Journal Articles: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology. 125.