Document Type


Journal Title

Hepatology research

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Aim: Induction of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) apoptosis is a viable therapeutic strategy to reduce liver fibrogenesis. Although BH3-only proteins of the Bcl-2 family trigger pro-apoptotic pathways, the BH3-only proteins mediating HSC apoptosis have not been well defined. Our aim, using proteasome inhibition as a model to induce HSC apoptosis, was to examine the BH3-only proteins contributing to cell death of this key liver cell subtype. Methods: Apoptosis was induced by treating LX-2 cells, an immortalized human hepatic stellate cell line, and primary rat stellate cells with the proteasome inhibitor MG-132. Results: Treatment with proteasome inhibitors increased expression of Noxa both at the mRNA (16-fold) and protein (22-fold) levels indicating that both transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms contributed to the increase in cellular Noxa levels. Knockdown of Noxa by siRNA significantly attenuated cell death, mechanistically implicating Noxa as a key apoptotic mediator of proteasome inhibitor-induced cell death. Given the pivotal role for the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein A1 in activated HSC survival, we determined if Noxa bound to this survival protein. Noxa was shown to physically bind the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein A1 by co-immunoprecipitation. Conclusions: Noxa contributes to proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis of stellate cells likely by binding A1. Strategies to therapeutically increase Noxa expression may be useful for inducing HSC apoptosis.




This is the pre-peer reviewed version of the following article: Sosa-Seda I, Mott JL, Akazawa Y, Barreyro FJ, Bronk SF, Kaufmann SH, Gores GJ. (2010) Noxa Mediates Hepatic Stellate Cell Apoptosis by Proteasome Inhibition. Hepatology Research, 40(7):701-10, which has been published in final form at 10.1111/j.1872-034X.2010.00668.x