Document Type


Journal Title

The Journal of Clinical Investigation

Publication Date





Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of biofilm-associated prosthetic joint infection (PJI). A primary contributor to infection chronicity is an expansion of granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (G-MDSCs), which are critical for orchestrating the antiinflammatory biofilm milieu. Single-cell sequencing and bioinformatic metabolic algorithms were used to explore the link between G-MDSC metabolism and S. aureus PJI outcome. Glycolysis and the hypoxia response through HIF1a were significantly enriched in G-MDSCs. Interfering with both pathways in vivo, using a 2-deoxyglucose nanopreparation and granulocyte-targeted Hif1a conditional KO mice, respectively, attenuated G-MDSC-mediated immunosuppression and reduced bacterial burden in a mouse model of S. aureus PJI. In addition, single-cell RNA-Seq (scRNA-Seq) analysis of granulocytes from PJI patients also showed an enrichment in glycolysis and hypoxia-response genes. These findings support the importance of a glycolysis/HIF1a axis in promoting G-MDSC antiinflammatory activity and biofilm persistence during PJI.

MeSH Headings

Humans, Mice, Animals, Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells, Staphylococcus aureus, Biofilms, Granulocytes, Hypoxia



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.