While many classes of chemotherapeutic agents exist to treat solid tumors, few can generate a lasting response without substantial off-target toxicity despite significant scientific advancements and investments. In this review, the paths of development for nanoparticles, oncolytic viruses, and oncolytic bacteria over the last 20 years of research towards clinical translation and acceptance as novel cancer therapeutics are compared. Novel nanoparticle, oncolytic virus, and oncolytic bacteria therapies all start with a common goal of accomplishing therapeutic drug activity or delivery to a specific site while avoiding off-target effects, with overlapping methodology between all three modalities. Indeed, the degree of overlap is substantial enough that breakthroughs in one therapeutic could have considerable implications on the progression of the other two. Each oncotherapeutic modality has accomplished clinical translation, successfully overcoming the potential pitfalls promising therapeutics face. However, once studies enter clinical trials, the data all but disappears, leaving pre-clinical researchers largely in the dark. Overall, the creativity, flexibility, and innovation of these modalities for solid tumor treatments are greatly encouraging, and usher in a new age of pharmaceutical development.
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Pierce, Kyle M.; Miklavcic, William R.; Cook, Kyle P.; Sweitzer Hennen, Mikayla; Bayles, Kenneth W.; Hollingsworth, Michael A.; Brooks, Amanda E.; Pullan, Jessica E.; and Dailey, Kaitlin M., "The Evolution and Future of Targeted Cancer Therapy: From Nanoparticles, Oncolytic Viruses, and Oncolytic Bacteria to the Treatment of Solid Tumors" (2021). Journal Articles: Pathology and Microbiology. 80.