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Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been investigated for their potential use as an alternative to antibiotics due to the increased demand for new antimicrobial agents. AMPs, widely found in nature and obtained from microorganisms, have a broad range of antimicrobial protection, allowing them to be applied in the treatment of infections caused by various pathogenic microorganisms. Since these peptides are primarily cationic, they prefer anionic bacterial membranes due to electrostatic interactions. However, the applications of AMPs are currently limited owing to their hemolytic activity, poor bioavailability, degradation from proteolytic enzymes, and high-cost production. To overcome these limitations, nanotechnology has been used to improve AMP bioavailability, permeation across barriers, and/or protection against degradation. In addition, machine learning has been investigated due to its time-saving and cost-effective algorithms to predict AMPs. There are numerous databases available to train machine learning models. In this review, we focus on nanotechnology approaches for AMP delivery and advances in AMP design via machine learning. The AMP sources, classification, structures, antimicrobial mechanisms, their role in diseases, peptide engineering technologies, currently available databases, and machine learning techniques used to predict AMPs with minimal toxicity are discussed in detail.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.