Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play a crucial role in fetal growth and neurodevelopment, while omega-6 (n-6) PUFAs have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Previous studies have demonstrated that socioeconomic status (SES) influences dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs, but few studies have evaluated the association between maternal and cord plasma biomarkers of PUFAs and socioeconomic markers. An IRB-approved study enrolled mother-infant pairs (n = 55) at the time of delivery. Maternal and cord plasma PUFA concentrations were analyzed using gas chromatography. Markers of SES were obtained from validated surveys and maternal medical records. Mann-Whitney U tests and linear regression models were utilized for statistical analysis. Maternal eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (p = 0.02), cord EPA (p = 0.04), and total cord n-3 PUFA concentrations (p = 0.04) were significantly higher in college-educated mothers vs. mothers with less than a college education after adjustment for relevant confounders. Insurance type and household income were not significantly associated with n-3 or n-6 PUFA plasma concentrations after adjustment. Our findings suggest that mothers with lower educational status may be at risk of lower plasma concentrations of n-3 PUFAs at delivery, which could confer increased susceptibility to adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes.
Pregnancy, Female, Humans, Prospective Studies, Fatty Acids, Omega-3, Eicosapentaenoic Acid, Mothers, Social Class
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Hergenrader, Alexandra; Van Ormer, Matthew; Slotkowski, Rebecca; Thompson, Maranda; Freeman, Alyssa; Paetz, Olivia; Sweeney, Sarah; Wegner, Lauren; Ali, Khadijjta; Bender, Nicole S.; Chaudhary, Ridhi; Thoene, Melissa K.; Hanson, Corrine K.; and Anderson-Berry, Ann, "Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels in Maternal and Cord Plasma Are Associated with Maternal Socioeconomic Status" (2023). Journal Articles: Pediatrics. 41.