Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Accompanying sustained release in darkness, rod and cone photoreceptors exhibit rapid endocytosis of synaptic vesicles. Membrane capacitance measurements indicated that rapid endocytosis retrieves at least 70% of the exocytotic membrane increase. One mechanism for rapid endocytosis is kiss-and-run fusion where vesicles briefly contact the plasma membrane through a small fusion pore. Release can also occur by full-collapse in which vesicles merge completely with the plasma membrane. We assessed relative contributions of full-collapse and kiss-and-run in salamander photoreceptors using optical techniques to measure endocytosis and exocytosis of large vs. small dye molecules. Incubation with small dyes (SR101, 1 nm; 3-kDa dextran-conjugated Texas Red, 2.3 nm) loaded rod and cone synaptic terminals much more readily than larger dyes (10-kDa Texas Red, 4.6 nm; 10-kDa pHrodo, 4.6 nm; 70-kDa Texas Red, 12 nm) consistent with significant uptake through 2.3-4.6 nm fusion pores. By using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) to image individual vesicles, when rods were incubated simultaneously with Texas Red and AlexaFluor-488 dyes conjugated to either 3-kDa or 10-kDa dextran, more vesicles loaded small molecules than large molecules. Using TIRFM to detect release by the disappearance of dye-loaded vesicles, we found that SR101 and 3-kDa Texas Red were released from individual vesicles more readily than 10-kDa and 70-kDa Texas Red. Although 10-kDa pHrodo was endocytosed poorly like other large dyes, the fraction of release events was similar to SR101 and 3-kDa Texas Red. We hypothesize that while 10-kDa pHrodo may not exit through a fusion pore, release of intravesicular protons can promote detection of fusion events by rapidly quenching fluorescence of this pH-sensitive dye. Assuming that large molecules can only be released by full-collapse whereas small molecules can be released by both modes, our results indicate that 50%-70% of release from rods involves kiss-and-run with 2.3-4.6 nm fusion pores. Rapid retrieval of vesicles by kiss-and-run may limit membrane disruption of release site function during ongoing release at photoreceptor ribbon synapses.
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Wen, Xiangyi; Saltzgaber, Grant W.; and Thoreson, Wallace B., "Kiss-and-Run Is a Significant Contributor to Synaptic Exocytosis and Endocytosis in Photoreceptors." (2017). Journal Articles: Pharmacology & Experimental Neuroscience. 52.