Document Type


Journal Title

BMC Infectious Diseases

Publication Date

Summer 8-19-2015




BACKGROUND: Efficacy trials investigating the effect of multivitamin (MV) supplementations among patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) have so far been inconclusive. We conducted a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial to determine the effect of one recommended daily allowance (RDA) of MV supplementation on disease progression in patients initiating HAART.

METHODS: Eligible subjects were randomized to receive placebo or MV supplementation including vitamins B-complex, C and E. Participants were followed for up to 18 months. Primary endpoints were: change in CD4 cell count, weight and quality of life (QoL). Secondary endpoints were: i) development of a new or recurrent HIV disease progression event, including all-cause mortality; ii) switching from first- to second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART); and iii) occurrence of an adverse event. Intent-to-treat analysis, using linear regression mixed effects models were used to compare changes over time in the primary endpoints between the study arms. Kaplan-Meier time-to-event analysis and the log-rank test was used to compare HIV disease progression events and all-cause mortality.

RESULTS: Four hundred participants were randomized, 200 onto MV and 200 onto placebo. By month 18, the average change in CD4 cell count in the MV arm was 141 cells/uL compared to 147 cells/uL in the placebo arm, a mean difference of -6 · 17 [95 % CI -29 · 3, 16 · 9]. The average change in weight in the MV arm was 3 · 9 kg compared to 3 · 3 kg in the placebo arm, a mean difference of 0 · 54 [95 % CI -0 · 40, 1 · 48]; whereas average change in QoL scores in the MV arm was 6 · 8 compared to 8 · 8 in the placebo arm, a mean difference of -2.16 [95 % CI -4 · 59,0 · 27]. No significant differences were observed in these primary endpoints, or in occurrence of adverse events between the trial arms.

CONCLUSIONS: One RDA of MV supplementation was safe but did not have an effect on indicators of disease progression among HIV infected adults initiating HAART.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trials NCT01228578 , registered on 15th October 2010.

MeSH Headings

Adolescent, Adult, Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active, Body Weight, CD4 Lymphocyte Count, Dietary Supplements, Disease Progression, Double-Blind Method, Female, HIV Infections, Humans, Kaplan-Meier Estimate, Linear Models, Male, Middle Aged, Quality of Life, Recommended Dietary Allowances, Treatment Outcome, Uganda, Vitamins, Young Adult



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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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