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Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is used to distinguish unilateral from bilateral aldosterone hypersecretion as a cause of primary hyperaldosteronism (PHA). This distinction is critical because unilateral disease is treated, and often cured, by adrenalectomy, whereas bilateral hypersecretion should be managed medically.
We performed a retrospective cohort review of adult patients undergoing index adrenalectomy for PHA at the University of Nebraska Medical Center from July of 2013 to June of 2022. Clinical and pathologic variables were assessed including patient age at surgery, sex, race or ethnicity, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, number and type of antihypertensive medications pre- and post-operatively, potassium level and supplementation, PAC, PRA, ARR, imaging findings, adrenal venous sampling results and concordance of imaging findings with AVS and surgical outcomes. Statistical analysis was performed with Mann Whitney U and chi-squared Fisher’s exact using STATA version 17.
In our cohort, 21 patients were identified who underwent adrenalectomy for primary hyperaldosteronism. Of these, 2 patients did not have any imaging findings and 19 were image localized. For patients with image localization AVS was concordant in 9, discordant in 4, and nondiagnostic in 6. For both patients without image localization the AVS was lateralizing. The overall discordance between imaging results and AVS was 40%. The only significant difference between patients with concordant and discordant results was the aldosterone level with concordant patients having a mean of 58ng/dL compared with discordant patients 23ng/dL (p = 0.0022). There was a significant reduction in antihypertensive medications in the entire cohort from a mean of 3.2 medications to 1.2 medications (p < 0.001).
Conclusions and Future Directions
In this cohort, 40% of patients with selective AVS had discordant imaging and AVS results. Preoperative plasma aldosterone concentration was positively associated with concordance, with higher PAC more likely to have imaging and AVS concordance. Overall, hypertension was significantly improved following adrenalectomy for PHA with a median decrease of 2 antihypertensives. Our results support the recommendation to perform AVS on all candidates for adrenalectomy for PHA. Further study is warranted to identify factors associated with discordance.
Adrenal Venous Sampling, Primary Hyperaldosteronism, Adrenal Hyperplasia, Cross-Sectional Imaging, AVS, Surgery, Surgical Oncology
Gordon, MaKayla M.; Goldner, Whitney; Kotwal, Anupam MBBS; Patel, Anery; Shank, Jessica; and Fingeret, Abbey, "Concordance of Cross-Sectional Imaging and Adrenal Venous Sampling Results for Patients with Surgically Treated Primary Hyperaldosteronism" (2022). Posters: 2022 Summer Undergraduate Research Program. 9.