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Download Title Page, Forward, Biographical Notes, Contents, Prologue.pdf (872 KB)

Download Chapter 1, The Role of Ideology in Shaping Human Management Models.pdf (677 KB)

Download Chapter 2, The Concept of Deviancy in Human Management.pdf (2.1 MB)

Download Chapter 3, The Principle of Normalization as a Human Management Model, Evolution of a Definition.pdf (356 KB)

Download Chapter 4, Typical Programmatic and Architectural Implications of the Normalization Principle.pdf (1.7 MB)

Download Chapter 5, Societal Integration as a Corollary of Normalization.pdf (1.3 MB)

Download Chapter 6, Additional Architectural-Environmental Implications of the Normalization Principle.pdf (3.3 MB)

Download Chapter 7, Additional Implications of the Normalization Principle to Residential Services.pdf (2.3 MB)

Download Chapter 8, Implications in the Field of Mental Health.pdf (4.2 MB)

Download Chapter 9, Normalizing Activation for the Profoundly Retarded and or Multiply Handicapped.pdf (1.9 MB)

Download Chapter 10, Reconciling Behavior Modification Procedures with the Normalization Principle.pdf (2.1 MB)

Download Chapter 11, Changing Vocational Behavior Through Normalization.pdf (2.1 MB)

Download Chapter 12, Meeting the Socio-Sexual Needs of Severely Impaired Adults.pdf (1.6 MB)

Download Chapter 13, The Right to Self-Determination.pdf (2.3 MB)

Download Chapter 14, The Dignity of Risk.pdf (950 KB)

Download Chapter 15, Dignity and Risk, A Further Reflection.pdf (254 KB)

Download Chapter 16, Some Safeguards for Integrative Services.pdf (868 KB)

Download Chapter 17, Normalization Via Citizen Advocacy.pdf (831 KB)

Download Chapter 18, Normalization Via Agency Preformance Assessment and Differential Funding.pdf (1.2 MB)

Download Chapter 19, Miscellaneous Other Implementive Strategies.pdf (333 KB)

Download Epilogue.pdf (237 KB)

Download References.pdf (1.4 MB)

Download Subject Index.pdf (766 KB)

Download Name Index.pdf (237 KB)


The underlying principles inherent in Normalization have lead to such recent developments as the United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Mentally Retarded Persons brought into being by the International League of Societies for the Mentally Handicapped.

This book is the first one to document normalization from its origins in Scandinavian services to the mentally retarded to its implications to the field of human services. The National Institute on Mental Retardation has published this text to support the current growing interest in normalization concepts and fuller integration of the retarded into the community. This concept is currently having a major impact on the pattern of programming in a number of countries. The views expressed in this book do not neces­sarily reflect the Institute's specific strategies, or those of its sponsor, the Canadian Association for the Mentally Retarded.

The publication of The principle of normalization in human services, and earlier of Mental retardation • the law • guardianship and Standards for educators of exceptional children in Canada are examples of the Institute's recently established publishing policy to bring to the attention of a wider public new concepts, innovative programs and reports of studies by the Institute itself and by others in the field of the mentally handicapped and in human services generally.

Publication Date



National Institute on Mental Retardation




Wolf Wolfensberger, Normalization, UNMC, University of Nebraska Medical Center, The Principle of Normalization in Human Services, Wolfensberger Collection


Education | Psychiatric and Mental Health


Permission for online publication of the book, The Principle of Normalization In Human Services, granted by CACL, the Canadian Association for Community Living.

Wolf Wolfensberger was born in Germany in 1934 and migrated to the United States in 1950. He received a doctorate in psychology and special education from George Peabody College for Teachers, and has worked as a clinician, researcher, teacher, and administrator in mental retardation. From 1964 to 1971, he was a Mental Retardation Research Scientist at the Nebraska Psychiatric Institute in Omaha, Nebraska, and was a Visiting Scholar with the National Institute on Mental Retardation in Toronto, Canada. Interests include systematic planning of service systems, and implementation of the normalization principle and of citizen advocacy.

The Principle of Normalization In Human Services