Document Type


Journal Title

Scientific Reports

Publication Date

Summer 6-22-2015




Microinjection is considered the gold standard technique for delivery of nucleic acids (NAs; transgenes or genome editing tools such as CRISPR/Cas9 systems) into embryos, for creating genetically modified organisms. It requires sophisticated equipment as well as well-trained and highly skilled personnel to perform the micro-injection technique. Here, we describe a novel and simple microinjection-independent technique, called Genome-editing via Oviductal Nucleic Acids Delivery (GONAD). Using GONAD, we show that NAs (e.g., eGFP mRNA or Cas9 mRNA/sgRNAs) can be effectively delivered to pre-implantation embryos within the intact mouse oviduct by a simple electroporation method, and result in the desired genetic modification in the embryos. Thus GONAD can bypass many complex steps in transgenic technology such as isolation of zygotes, microinjection of NAs into them, and their subsequent transfer to pseudo-pregnant animals. Furthermore, this method can potentially be used for genome editing in species other than mice.

MeSH Headings

Animals, CRISPR-Cas Systems, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, Electroporation, Elongation Factor 2 Kinase, Embryo, Mammalian, Female, Gene Targeting, Genetic Engineering, Green Fluorescent Proteins, Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, Microinjections, Oviducts, RNA, Messenger



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.