Osteosarcoma (OS) is a common bone malignancy in children and adolescents. Although histological subtyping followed by improved OS treatment regimens have helped achieve favorable outcomes, a lack of understanding of the molecular subtypes remains a challenge to characterize its genetic heterogeneity and subsequently to identify diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for developing effective treatments. In the present study, global analysis of DNA methylation, and mRNA and miRNA gene expression in OS patient samples were correlated with their clinical characteristics. The mucin family of genes, MUC6, MUC12, and MUC4, were found to be highly mutated in the OS patients. Results revealed the enrichment of molecular pathways including Wnt signaling, Calcium signaling, and PI3K-Akt signaling in the OS tumors. Survival analyses showed that the expression levels of several genes such as RAMP1, CRIP1, CORT, CHST13, and DDX60L, miRNAs and lncRNAs were associated with survival of OS patients. Molecular subtyping using Cluster-Of-Clusters Analysis (COCA) for mRNA, lncRNA, and miRNA expression; DNA methylation; and mutation data from the TARGET dataset revealed two distinct molecular subtypes, each with a distinctive gene expression profile. Between the two subtypes, three upregulated genes, POP4, HEY1, CERKL, and seven downregulated genes, CEACAM1, ABLIM1, LTBP2, ISLR, LRRC32, PTPRF, and GPX3, associated with OS metastasis were found to be differentially regulated. Thus, the molecular subtyping results provide a strong basis for classification of OS patients that could be used to develop better prognostic treatment strategies.
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Southekal, Siddesh; Shakyawar, Sushil Kumar; Bajpai, Prachi; Elkholy, Amr; Manne, Upender; Mishra, Nitish Kumar; and Guda, Chittibabu, "Molecular Subtyping and Survival Analysis of Osteosarcoma Reveals Prognostic Biomarkers and Key Canonical Pathways" (2023). Journal Articles: Genetics, Cell Biology & Anatomy. 48.