Document Type

Article

Journal Title

Journal of Extracellular Vesicles

Publication Date

2020

Volume

9

Abstract

Despite the efficacy of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in controlling human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) replication, cytotoxic viral proteins such as HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) persist in tissues such as the brain. Although HIV-1 does not infect neuronal cells, it is susceptible to viral Tat protein-mediated toxicity, leading to neuroinflammation that underlies HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Given the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in both cellular homoeostasis and under pathological conditions, we sought to investigate the alterations in the quantity of neuronal-derived EVs in the brain–as defined by the presence of cell adhesion molecule L1 (L1CAM) and to evaluate the presence of L1CAM+ EVs in the peripheral circulation of HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1 Tg) rats. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term exposure of HIV-1 viral proteins on the release of neuronal EVs in the brain and their transfer in the systemic compartment. Brain and serum EVs were isolated from both wild type and HIV-1 Tg rats using differential ultracentrifugation with further purification using the Optiprep gradient method. The subpopulation of neuronal EVs was further enriched using immunoprecipitation. The current findings demonstrated increased presence of L1CAM+ neuronal-derived EVs both in the brain and serum of HIV-1 Tg rats. © 2019, © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group on behalf of The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License

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