Document Type


Journal Title

International Journal of Molecular Sciences

Publication Date





Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) is involved in DNA repair and transcriptional regulation mechanisms. This multifunctional activity of APE1 should be supported by specific structural properties of APE1 that have not yet been elucidated. Herein, we applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) to characterize the interactions of APE1 with DNA containing two well-separated G-rich segments. Complexes of APE1 with DNA containing G-rich segments were visualized, and analysis of the complexes revealed the affinity of APE1 to G-rich DNA sequences, and their yield was as high as 53%. Furthermore, APE1 is capable of binding two DNA segments leading to the formation of loops in the DNA-APE1 complexes. The analysis of looped APE1-DNA complexes revealed that APE1 can bridge G-rich segments of DNA. The yield of loops bridging two G-rich DNA segments was 41%. Analysis of protein size in various complexes was performed, and these data showed that loops are formed by APE1 monomer, suggesting that APE1 has two DNA binding sites. The data led us to a model for the interaction of APE1 with DNA and the search for the specific sites. The implication of these new APE1 properties in organizing DNA, by bringing two distant sites together, for facilitating the scanning for damage and coordinating repair and transcription is discussed.

MeSH Headings

DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase, DNA, Microscopy, Atomic Force, Protein Binding, Humans, Binding Sites, DNA Repair



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.