Document Type

Capstone Experience

Graduation Date


Degree Name

Master of Public Health



First Committee Member

Kendra Ratnapradipa PhD, MSW

Second Committee Member

Ariane Rung PhD, MPH

Third Committee Member

Ishrat Kamal-Ahmed M.Sc, PhD

Fourth Committee Member

Anthony Blake MPH


Objective: To determine if inequities in influenza immunization exist between Hispanic and non-Hispanic White populations living in the United States.

Methods: Statistical analyses were executed to study the association between ethnicity and influenza immunization. Logistic regression was performed to determine probabilities related to vaccination. Data from the 2022 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) was utilized.

Results: Hispanic respondents had higher odds of not being vaccinated against the flu when compared to non-Hispanic White respondents (COR = 1.82, 95% CI [1.73, 1.91]). Ethnicity, household income, education, insurance status, age, sex, preferred language, and primary care provider status were all significantly associated with influenza immunization (p<0.0001). After model adjustment, Hispanic individuals remained at higher odds of not being vaccinated against the flu within the previous twelve months (AOR = 1.12, 95% CI [1.05, 1.20]).

Conclusions: Statistical relationships were demonstrated between odds of not receiving a flu shot and all covariates. It’s evident there are many factors that play into individuals opting to receive a flu shot. Public health interventions should be tailored, targeting vulnerable populations to increase vaccine uptake.