Document Type

Capstone Experience

Graduation Date


Degree Name

Master of Public Health



First Committee Member

Kendra Ratnapradipa, PhD

Second Committee Member

Ariane Rung, PhD, MPH

Third Committee Member

Anthony Blake, MPH

Fourth Committee Member

Ishrat Kamal-Ahmed, PhD


Objective. To evaluate the association of influenza vaccination in the past 12 months with Long COVID effects and clinical and sociodemographic factors.

Methods. Cross-sectional study with data from the 2022 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), covering 415,132 non-institutionalized U.S. adults with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis and influenza vaccination reported within the last 12 months. Logistic regression was conducted between influenza vaccination (exposure) and Long COVID (outcome), controlling for demographic variables, pre-existing health conditions, and socioeconomic status.

Results. Of 120,603 participants, 21.89% reported Long COVID symptoms and 42.04% had received an influenza vaccine. Findings indicate a statistically significant 13% reduction (95% CI: 1.06 - 1.20) of Long COVID among influenza-vaccinated individuals, adjusting for confounders such as healthcare access, socioeconomic and demographic factors, and chronic health conditions. Individuals with chronic health conditions, women, minority racial/ethnic groups, and adults aged 45 to 64 were more likely to report Long COVID symptoms.

Conclusions. Our study suggests that influenza vaccination may reduce Long COVID symptoms, maintaining statistical significance. Further research is needed to confirm these associations and explore strategies for addressing Long COVID challenges.