Document Type

Capstone Experience

Graduation Date


Degree Name

Master of Public Health



First Committee Member

Dr. Ariane Rung

Second Committee Member

Dr. Kendra Ratnapradipa

Third Committee Member

Dr. Ishrat Kamal-Ahmed

Fourth Committee Member

Mr. Anthony Blake


Objectives: To examine the relationship between self-reported smoking frequency and the presence of Long COVID among individuals who tested positive for COVID-19.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a sample of 44,738 COVID-positive participants from the 2022 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) dataset. Logistic regression was utilised to compute prevalence odds ratios (pOR) and was adjusted for potential sociodemographic confounders.

Results: Individuals who smoked daily were found to have a greater likelihood of reporting Long COVID in comparison with nonsmokers (Crude pOR=1.22; CI= [1.10-1.35]). However, in the adjusted regression model, daily smoking was no longer significant (Adjusted pOR=1.04; CI= [0.93, 1.16]). Self-reported Long COVID was significantly prevalent among individuals in the younger age group, female gender, lower educational status, lower income status, and unemployment status.

Conclusions: Smoking habits alone do not solely determine long-term COVID-19 outcomes; instead, sociodemographic determinants play a crucial role in their prediction. Therefore, interdisciplinary interventions are essential to address health disparities in vulnerable populations. Objective examinations and longitudinal data are required to comprehend the link between smoking, sociodemographic factors, and Long COVID.

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