Document Type

Capstone Experience

Graduation Date


Degree Name

Master of Public Health



First Committee Member

Ariane Rung, PhD

Second Committee Member

Kendra Ratnapradipa, PhD

Third Committee Member

Anthony Blake, MPH

Fourth Committee Member

Ishrat Kamal-Ahmed, PhD



Long-COVID can occur following coronavirus-19 infection and can have debilitating consequences. It is unclear how household income (a social determinant of health) might impact the development of long-COVID. This study aims to characterize and compare the prevalence of long-COVID in persons who have been diagnosed with COVID-19, according to household income.


Using data from the 2022 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Questionnaire, 124,313 respondents who reported a diagnosis of COVID-19 infection were analyzed for the development of long-COVID (outcome) and compared across annual household income (exposure). Other demographic and socioeconomic factors were similarly analyzed.


The prevalence of long-COVID was notably different among income categories, with persons reporting lower household income demonstrating significantly increased odds of having long-COVID when compared to persons with higher income.


This analysis suggests that those with lower household income were more likely to have long-COVID compared to those with higher income. Other characteristics that were associated with higher risk were consistent with previous studies. This knowledge can help to identify those at higher risk for disease and connect them with appropriate care.

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