Graduation Date

Fall 12-14-2018

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Medical Sciences Interdepartmental Area

First Advisor

William Warzak


Although substantial research has shown time-out to be an effective treatment for children’s problem behavior, time-out resistance (i.e., failure to go to time-out, escape from time-out, as well as negative vocalizations and aggression occurring between the time-out instruction and the completion of time-out) has the potential to decrease time-out’s suppressive effect, increase use of more intrusive and effortful administrative methods and escape contingencies, and negatively affect parental adherence. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of deferred time-out (DTO) on time-out resistance in a clinic and home setting. In addition, this research provided a preliminary evaluation of DTO’s effect on compliance with parent commands outside of time-out, as well as an assessment of parent acceptance of DTO. Four preschool aged children participated. DTO reduced the latency to comply with the time-out instruction and the duration of the time-out trial for three of four participants. Overall improvements in initial command compliance were observed for all participants. Parents generally found DTO to be an acceptable approach for children’s problem behavior. This research extends the science of effective, and low response effort time-out procedures for children’s problem behavior.