Health belief model implications for cervical cancer screening among refugee women in Omaha, Nebraska
According to the World Health Organization (2020), cervical cancer is among the top four most common cancers in women. However, refugee women are the least screened for cervical cancer. There is limited research examining the uptake of cervical cancer screenings among refugee women using the health belief model. Little is known about barriers and facilitators associated with the uptake of cervical cancer screening among refugee women in Nebraska.
The purpose of the study is to assess the health behavior of refugee women in Omaha towards cervical cancer screening via the health belief model and to determine the barriers and facilitators to the uptake of cervical cancer screening in the Omaha area.
This study uses secondary data collected from a convenience sample of refugee women in Omaha from the 2018 and 2019 Bridge to Care program health fair and community refugee women group meetings between 2017 and 2019. The sample consists of 121 refugee women who responded to a survey administered at various settings described above. The data collected were analyzed using SAS 9.4 software. Descriptive statistics, chi-square independence test and binary logistic regressions were estimated to inform the health belief of refugee women in Omaha, the association between uptake of cervical cancer screening and barriers, and the association between uptake of cervical cancer screening and facilitators.
The main findings are: 1) There is an association between parity and perceived susceptibility. Also, health insurance is found to be statistically associated with perceived benefits; 2) 17% of refugee women mentioned they were not aware they should of for screening, 26% of refugee women did not know where to go for screening, and 40% mentioned other reasons for not going for cervical cancer screening; 3) The facilitators to cervical cancer screening are health insurance coverage and parity to the uptake of cervical cancer among refugees.
Significance of the proposed study for public health practices:
This study will help public health workers design effective public health interventions that promote cervical cancer screening among refugee women in Omaha, Nebraska. There is a pressing need to develop and implement public health interventions to address barriers to cervical cancer screening among refugee women with a lower socioeconomic status, education, and health literacy.