Graduation Date

Fall 12-18-2020

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Pharmaceutical Sciences

First Advisor

Dr. Howard E. Gendelman

Second Advisor

Dr. Benson J. Edagwa


While antiretroviral therapy (ART) has revolutionized treatment and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1) infection, regimen adherence, viral mutations, drug toxicities, stigma and pill fatigue are limitations. These have led to the development of long acting (LA) ART. These include, but are not limited to, implantable devices, new chemical entities, prodrug modifications and nanoformulations. To these ends, this thesis focues on the transformation of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) into LA parenterals, While elusive, data from our laboratories demonstrated that modifications to the PROdrug and nucleoTide technology (ProTide) enables improvements in drug apparent half-life and tissue and cell drug penetrance. Specifically, we now show that this modified ProTide approach could be applied successfully to emtricitabine (FTC) amongst other hydrophilic compounds to generate LA formulations. This advance can be seen as a principal part of commonly accepted antiretroviral and other antiviral treatment regimens.

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