ORCID (Optional)


Document Type

Original Report


Higher Education | Medicine and Health Sciences



Objective: To determine whether smoking status effects pain and functional outcomes in a chronic pain program.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 178 patients treated at the Nebraska Medicine comprehensive Pain Management Program over a five year period was completed. Outcomes measures were the Visual Analog Scale Past Month Average Pain score (VAS-PMA), Multidimensional Pain Inventory pain and interference scales (MPI-P and MPI-I), and the Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale (PAIRS). Patients were categorized by smoking status into non-smoker or current smoker groups. Wilcoxon tests were used to compare the pre scores, post scores, and post-minus-pre scores between smoking status groups.

Results: The pre-treatment VAS-PMA and MPI-P median scores were significantly higher in the current smoker group (81.5 and 5.0, respectively) compared to the non-smoker group (76.5 and 4.3, respectively), whereas post-treatment median scores did not differ. Furthermore, the current smoker group had a significantly greater decrease on the MPI-P from pre- to post-treatment (median=-2.0) than the non-smoker group (median=-1.6). In addition, smokers had a significantly higher pre-treatment PAIRS score (73.5) than nonsmokers (70), whereas post-treatment scores did not differ.

Conclusion: Smokers and non-smokers both benefit from the program, but smokers, who report greater initial pain and stronger beliefs about the association between pain and functional impairment, may benefit more than non-smokers.




Chronic Pain Programs, Smoking, Chronic pain

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.



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